Malaria – Stats and Facts,Do You Know Series

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*Key General facts*
• Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable.
• In 2017, there were an estimated 219 million cases of malaria in 87 countries.
• The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 435 000 in 2017.
• The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2017, the region was home to 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths.
• Total funding for malaria control and elimination reached an estimated US$ 3.1 billion in 2017. Contributions from governments of endemic countries amounted to US$ 900 million, representing 28% of total funding.
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Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors.” There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat.
• In 2017, P. falciparum accounted for 99.7% of estimated malaria cases in the WHO African Region, as well as in the majority of cases in the WHO regions of South-East Asia (62.8%), the Eastern Mediterranean (69%) and the Western Pacific (71.9%).
• P. vivax is the predominant parasite in the WHO Region of the Americas, representing 74.1% of malaria cases.\
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*Key Facts On Malaria in Nigeria*

– Malaria is a risk for 97% of Nigeria’s population. …
– There are an estimated 100 million malaria cases with over 300,000 deaths per year in Nigeria.
– Malaria contributes to an estimated 11% of maternal mortality.\
– Malaria is commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, which has a free breeding environment
– 70 percent) of all malaria deaths are to children under 5
– Malaria is a preventable, treatable disease
– Malaria breeds mostly in warmer climates, where there is an abundance of humidity and rain\
– Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain effective in almost all settings, as long as the partner drug in the combination is locally effective.
– Long-lasting insecticidal nets provide personal protection against mosquito bites
– Pregnant women are at high risk of dying from the complications of severe malaria
– Malaria can kill within 24 hours of symptom onset
– It can infect an African child up to 13 times a year
– It costs Africa USD 12-30 billion in lost GDP every year\
– It accounts for 40% of all public health spending in Africa
– Ninety percent of the malaria global deaths are also in Africa.
– Symptoms of Malaria usually comes with fever, chills, headache, muscle, or joint pains, and vomiting
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*Symptoms*
– Malaria is an acute febrile illness.
– In a non-immune individual, symptoms usually appear 10–15 days after the infective mosquito bite.
– The first symptoms – fever, headache, and chills – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death.\
– Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms – severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria.
– In adults, multi-organ failure is also frequent.
– In malaria endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.
#coatalfortesoftgel #toughonmalariasoftonyou #WHO #NAFDAC #SON

*Who is at risk?*
– In 2017, nearly half of the world’s population was at risk of malaria.
– Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
– Some population groups are at considerably higher risk of contracting malaria, and developing severe disease, than others. These include infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile populations and travellers.
– National malaria control programmes need to take special measures to protect these population groups from malaria infection, taking into consideration their specific circumstances.
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*Disease burden*
– According to the latest World malaria report, released in November 2018, there were 219 million cases of malaria in 2017, up from 217 million cases in 2016.
– The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 435 000 in 2017, a similar number to the previous year.
– The WHO African Region continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2017, the region was home to 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths.\
– In 2017, 5 countries accounted for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%).
– Children under 5 years of age are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2017, they accounted for 61% (266 000) of all malaria deaths worldwide.
#coatalfortesoftgel #toughonmalariasoftonyou #WHO #NAFDAC #SON

*Facts on Transmission*
– In most cases, malaria is transmitted through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes.
– There are more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito; around 30 are malaria vectors of major importance.
– All of the important vector species bite between dusk and dawn. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.
– Anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in water, which hatch into larvae, eventually emerging as adult mosquitoes.
– The female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs.
– Each species of Anopheles mosquito has its own preferred aquatic habitat; for example, some prefer small, shallow collections of fresh water, such as puddles and hoof prints, which are abundant during the rainy season in tropical countries.
– Transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer (so that the parasite has time to complete its development inside the mosquito) and where it prefers to bite humans rather than other animals.
– The long lifespan and strong human-biting habit of the African vector species is the main reason why approximately 90% of the world’s malaria cases are in Africa.
– In many places, transmission is seasonal, with the peak during and just after the rainy season.
– Malaria epidemics can occur when climate and other conditions suddenly favour transmission in areas where people have little or no immunity to malaria.
– They can also occur when people with low immunity move into areas with intense malaria transmission, for instance to find work, or as refugees.
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*Prevention*
Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.
WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control – insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying – are effective in a wide range of circumstances.
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*Insecticide-treated mosquito nets*
Sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) can reduce contact between mosquitoes and humans by providing both a physical barrier and an insecticidal effect. Population-wide protection can result from the killing of mosquitoes on a large scale where there is high access and usage of such nets within a community.
In 2017, about half of all people at risk of malaria in Africa were protected by an insecticide-treated net, compared to 29% in 2010. However, ITN coverage increased only marginally in the period 2015 to 2017.
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*Indoor spraying with residual insecticides*
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides is another powerful way to rapidly reduce malaria transmission. It involves spraying the inside of housing structures with an insecticide, typically once or twice per year. To confer significant community protection, IRS should be implemented at a high level of coverage.
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*Antimalarial drugs*
Antimalarial medicines *such as Coatal-Forte Soft Gel,* Camasulin Amartem and a host of others can also be used to prevent malaria. For travellers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease.
For pregnant women living in moderate-to-high transmission areas, WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. Similarly, for infants living in high-transmission areas of Africa, 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended, delivered alongside routine vaccinations.
Since 2012, WHO has recommended seasonal malaria chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy for areas of the Sahel sub-region of Africa. The strategy involves the administration of monthly courses of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to all children under 5 years of age during the high transmission season.
#coatalfortesoftgel #toughonmalariasoftonyou #WHO #NAFDAC #SON

*Insecticide resistance*
Since 2000, progress in malaria control has resulted primarily from expanded access to vector control interventions, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are threatened by emerging resistance to insecticides among Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the latest World malaria report, 68 countries reported mosquito resistance to at least 1 of the 5 commonly-used insecticide classes in the period 2010-2017; among these countries, 57 reported resistance to 2 or more insecticide classes.
Despite the emergence and spread of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids (the only insecticide class used in ITNs), insecticide-treated nets continue to provide a substantial level of protection in most settings. This was evidenced in a large 5-country study coordinated by WHO between 2011 and 2016.
While the findings of this study are encouraging, WHO continues to highlight the urgent need for new and improved tools in the global response to malaria. To prevent an erosion of the impact of core vector control tools, WHO also underscores the critical need for all countries with ongoing malaria transmission to develop and apply effective insecticide resistance management strategies.
#coatalfortesoftgel #toughonmalariasoftonyou #WHO #NAFDAC #SON

Diagnosis and treatment
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission. The best available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum malaria, is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).
WHO recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment. Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 30 minutes or less. Treatment, solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible. More detailed recommendations are available in the “WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria”, third edition, published in April 2015

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